WHAT IF YOU COULD GET health insurance coverage and tax benefits,
while being able to save for your future, all at the same time? A
Health Savings Account (HSA) linked to a high-deductible health plan
(HDHP) can do all that. Which may be why, increasingly, companies are
offering these accounts as an option for their employees as they plan
their health coverage. And people who are self-employed are
increasingly considering them as well. "HSAs are intended to help
you save pre-tax or tax-deductible dollars to pay for qualified
medical expenses—both now and in the future—that aren't covered by
insurance," says Tom Matarazzo, head of Health Benefits &
Institutional Retirement Investments at Bank of America Merrill
Still, many people find HSAs confusing. Here's some information
about them to mull over as you consider ways of funding present and
future health-care costs.
"An HSA is triple tax-advantaged—when money goes into the account, when it grows and when it comes out."— Tom Matarazzo, head of Health Benefits & Institutional Retirement Investments, Bank of America Merrill Lynch
1. Who’s eligible for a Health Savings Account?
The primary condition for opening an HSA is that you must also be
enrolled in a qualified high-deductible health plan (HDHP). For 2019,
HDHPs require an annual deductible of $1,350 or more for an individual
($2,700 for a family). In addition, for 2019, they need to provide an
out-of-pocket maximum of $6,750 per year ($13,500 for a family) before
covering 100% of allowable medical expenses. Even if your employer
doesn't offer an HSA—or if you're self-employed—you may be able to
open an HSA on your own, as long as you’re also enrolled in an HDHP.
Keep in mind, in addition to being enrolled in a qualified HDHP, you
cannot be claimed as someone else’s dependent and you cannot have
disqualifying additional medical coverage, such as a general purpose
health flexible spending account (FSA).
2. What are the tax advantages of opening an HSA?
The money you can contribute to these accounts is tax-deductible or
pre-tax, and any increase in the value of your account is free from
federal taxes—as are withdrawals for qualified medical expenses.
"One of the most important features of an HSA is that it's triple
tax-advantaged—when money goes into the account, when it grows and
when it comes out," Matarazzo says.
3. How much can I contribute to an HSA yearly?
When making HSA contributions, keep in mind these limits for 2019 and
2020. You can put money into an HSA every year you are eligible,
until you enroll in Medicare. After that, you're no longer allowed to
contribute. Special rules apply to reduce the annual limits in a year
you become or cease to be eligible.
4. What expenses can I cover with the funds in my HSA?
A wide range of routine medical costs, including:
- Qualified out-of-pocket
medical expenses you incur before you've met your HDHP
- Medical, dental or vision
coinsurance and co-payments
- Prescription drugs
- Some medical treatments not
covered by your insurance, such as visits to a chiropractor
- Some kinds of medical
equipment, like eyeglasses
5. How can I tap into my HSA funds?
There are a number of ways you can tap into the cash in your HSA.
While the availability of certain features will differ depending on
the provider, some HSAs will give you a debit card or checkbook that
you can use to directly pay for qualified medical expenses. With other
providers, you might be able to set up a direct transfer of funds from
your HSA to your regular bank account to reimburse yourself for
qualified expenses you've already incurred. You can check with your
employer or the HSA administrator to learn about the available
6. Are there any time restrictions on my ability to use an HSA?
No, one of the great advantages of an HSA is that you're not
required to take money out of it by any given date, such as the end of
the year—you can save and may even be able to invest your balance
until you need it. If you lose your job and continue insurance
coverage under COBRA, you can use your HSA to pay your premiums.
Another plus: Even if you leave the employer that originally sponsored
your HSA, you can roll the balance over to another HSA—either one
offered by your new employer or an HSA you open yourself.
To learn how to make the most of the health-care options your employer might provide, check out "Health Perks at Work."Read More
7. What are my investment choices?
It varies. Some HSAs function as savings accounts only; others allow
you to invest your contributions in a choice of mutual funds or other
investment options, giving your account the potential to grow. If
you're thinking about making that sort of investment, consider your
goals. Do you plan to use the account to pay for everyday health
expenses in the short term rather than saving it for future
anticipated medical costs? If so, then you may want to keep those
funds in cash or investments that offer easy access to cash.
Anticipating that you won't be using the account anytime soon? Then
consider mutual funds or other investment options better suited for
the long term. Be aware that your account balance might have to reach
a certain amount before your provider allows you to invest it, and you
may need to maintain a certain cash balance in your account.
8. Can I use my HSA in retirement?
Yes, starting an account now, while you're in good health, could
help you in retirement—when your medical bills are likely to increase.
Once you're 65 or older, your HSA can be used to pay for Medicare
premiums for Parts A, B or D with tax-free withdrawals, as with other
qualified medical expenses. You can even pay for non-qualified
expenses, but you will need to pay regular income taxes on those
withdrawals. In addition, notes Roger W. Gray, Director, Health
Benefit Solutions at Bank of America, "You can also use an HSA to
pay with pre-tax dollars for your qualified long-term care insurance
9. Are there instances in which an HSA is not necessarily the best choice?
An HSA may not be right for everybody. You might prefer to select a
health insurance plan with a lower deductible, in which case you
wouldn't be eligible to contribute to an HSA. Or you might, for
instance, have other savings priorities—like building a general
emergency fund—that leave little room in your budget for funding yet
another savings account. Or if you're young and in good health, you
might decide you'd rather devote any spare cash to investing in an IRA
or other account dedicated solely to retirement.
But for many others, an HSA can be a useful solution for addressing
some of the high costs of health care. "In today's health-care
market, we all need to take a long-term view of health coverage,"
says Gray. "If you consider the cost of insurance in combination
with the potential savings provided by an HSA, you may be better
positioned to meet your medical needs—and possibly have money left
over to help you meet your other goals."
3 Questions to Ask Your Advisor
- My employer doesn’t offer
Health Savings Accounts. Is there another way I can open
could an HSA help supplement my long-term care insurance?
- Given my age, could
it make sense for me to put the money I would contribute into an
HSA into another kind of investment account?
Connect with an advisor and start a conversation about your goals.
Give us a call at
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1 Any interest or earnings on the assets in the HSA are tax-free while held in the account. You can receive tax-free distributions from your HSA, including distributions of interest or earnings, to pay or be reimbursed for qualified medical expenses you incur after you establish the HSA. If you receive distributions for other reasons, the amount you withdraw will be subject to income tax and, if withdrawn before age 65, death, or disability, may be subject to an additional 20% federal tax. You may be able to claim a tax deduction for contributions you, or someone other than your employer, make to your HSA. We recommend you contact qualified tax or legal counsel before establishing a HSA.
Neither Merrill Lynch nor any of its affiliates or financial advisors provide legal, tax or accounting advice. You should consult your legal and/or tax advisors before making any financial decisions.